Advertising is one of the 5 major tools used by companies to communicate and persuade the buyers and other targeted audiences. Advertising can be defined as any form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods or services paid by a well defined sponsor. Those who spend money on advertising are not only companies, but also museums, social and professional organisations, who promote ideas and principles.The process of making a decision in advertising consists of 5 steps: setting goals, administrating the budget, conceiving the message and assessing the advertising efficiency. Advertising users have to define clear objectives, establishing whether the role of advertising is to inform, to persuade or to refresh the customers’ memory. Advertising budget is usually determined according to the company’s expenses, based on a percentage of sales or depending on the objectives that the company aims to achieve.In developing an advertising program, marketing managers should always start by identifying the targeted audience and its reasons to purchase a specific product or service. Then they have to make five fundamental decisions, known as “the 5 M”: What are the advertising objectives (mission)? How much can be spent (money)? What message can be sent (message)? What media should be used (media)? How should the result be evaluated and followed up (measurement)?Advertising is very important both for companies and customers. Customers have the possibility to learn more about the products available on the market, in order to choose the most advantageous product.After establishing the advertising objectives, the company can proceed to develop the advertising budget for each product. The role of advertising is to determine an upward trend in product demand. But how can a company know what is the most appropriate amount of money to be invested in advertising? If a company invests a too small amount of money in advertising, the effort is insignificant and, paradoxically, the company ends by spending more than it was planned. On the other hand, investing too much money is not always the best solution. Some critics claim that big companies producing consumer goods tend to spend excessive amounts in developing advertising campaigns, while those that produce industrial goods spend too little.Setting goals is based on the company’s global marketing objectives. Thus, advertising goals are part of promotional campaign objectives. The main objective of advertising is to obtain a certain change in the audience attitude towards a particular product. Before buying a product, the consumer searches for information about that product. He first uses his experience or appeals to external sources of information (including those provided by advertisers), using (mentally) an assessment system consisting of three psychological levels: a cognitive level, an emotional level and a behavioral level.This individual system of evaluation determines the reaction of a potential customer towards the product. Considering these factors, advertising objectives should cover all three levels.Although the three main levels are strongly connected, their implementation must be done in a certain order. For a good analysis, the company can use several models. Of these, the most commonly used are the AIDA model, The DAGMAR model, the hierarchy of effects (Lavidge / Steiner) model and the Communicational model. Using each of these models allows the company to choose the best advertising strategies.
The unwritten rule of effective advertising involves creating ads that appeal to people’s emotions, these appeals can be broadly categorized into fear, sex, humor, music, rationality, emotions and scarcity. These appeals are something that are experienced by everyone universally, regardless of race, financial stance or intelligence.Think back to an advertisement that you can remember, what appeal did it have? chances are it fit into one of the “magic 7” appeals, perhaps even using a mixture of the appeals. Needless to say the successful advertisement is not only the one you remember, but the one you remember in a positive light. Successful marketers are able to create advertisements customers favorably recall in memory… and we all know positive attitudes lead to positive behaviors, such as consumers buying your product! Below is a guide to using the appeals, highlighting both positive and negative consequences associated with using the advertising appeals.Fear Appeal – The first advertising appeal and perhaps the most effective to date, is the advertising appeal of fear. Fear is an emotion that has existed as long as intelligible life has walked the Earth. Fear advertising concentrates on emotional responses from customers to a perceived threat, typically severity and vulnerability. An example of a fear appeal would be an advertisement for a “web hosting” company focusing on the severity of downtime experienced on the site and the customers vulnerability of losing business due to downtime. The Good – Fear appeals tend to be very persuasive and are great for capturing peoples attention, such as an eye-catching advertisement of an injured car crash victim due to drink diving. The Bad – hard to gauge how much fear to use, too much and you can scare people away from your ads and too little fear and nobody will notice your ad.Sex Appeal – Another universal aspect of being human, sex has been used for years by marketers to capture attention of the sexes. The use of sex can be subliminal, sexually suggestive, nudity or sensuality, ever notice how most people that appear in ads tend to be attractive? An example of sexual advertising is with the America’s Next Top Model TV series, which has ads showing the girls in sexually suggestive clothes to lure in male viewers to watch episodes. The Good – Sex is proven to cut through clutter, if your advertising in a busy time-slot using sex appeals will help your ad get noticed, this helps increase brand recognition The Bad – Sex appeals can be provocative and may cause negative reactions with different cultures (non-western) and sex appeals are so prevalent nowadays that they no longer carry the WOW-factor they once did.Humor Appeal – Everyone loves to laugh and most people have negative attitudes towards advertising but positive reactions to humor, a consumer watching a humorous ad laughs, tells people the joke and remembers this greatly helps marketers. There are many memorable TV ads that use humor to promote their brands, the John West Salmon ad where a man fights a bear for salmon effectively leverages the humor appeal The Good – Humor is one of the best methods for cutting through advertising clutter as funny ads are more easily noticed by the increasingly time-scarce consumer, humor gets attention, stays in peoples memories and typically win awards The Bad – it is important that the joke does not overpower the brand or its associated motto, if people remember the joke but not the brand this is not effective. Advertisers must also be culturally aware as what is funny in one culture may be offensive in another.Music Appeal – Music is something that everyone enjoys, music is something that is both personal and causes people to recall moments that are both good and bad in their life. Music helps capture attentions and link to the consumers emotions. An example of music appeal is soft drink company 7UP using the song ‘sunshine’ by the Partridge family, this helped resonate the message to their target market. The Good – using a well known song can bring back positive nostalgic memories in consumers causing them to have positive attitudes towards your brand, music’s intrusive nature means that people can still be attracted to the ad even if they are avoiding ads in general. The Bad – certain music can cause negative reactions in consumers if they relate to bad memories in the past.Rationality Appeal – The rationality appeal relies on consumers actively processing the information presented in the ad, this appeal is typically used in print media due to the consumers having more time set aside to read the advertising in this medium. Typically rational appeals focus on the practical, functional or utilitarian needs of consumers. Rational appeals are typically used in advertising drugs or healthy lifestyle products like Vitamins, such as recent ads by pharmaceutical company Swisse which used Australian Cricket captain Ricky Ponting who asserted the individual vitamins to appeal to knowledgeable consumers. The Good – rationality is great for high-involvement products and for B2B advertising The Bad – the rational appeal must be credible as false claims can cause negative brand attitudes.Scarcity Appeal – Scarcity is based on limitations, typically this is in the form of limited time to purchase or limited supply. Scarcity is often used with fear appeals, to help empower customers by missing out on a potential immediately negative event. Australian advertisers use scarcity appeal in cricket memorabilia advertising, by offering The Good – scarcity is great for encouraging users to take action, and is often effectively used with other promotions like coupons, sweepstakes and contests The Bad – scarcity appeals must be genuine or consumers will harbor negative attitudes towards your brand.Emotional Appeal – Appealing to the emotions of consumers is an effective technique for capturing attention and fostering attachments for a consumer to your brand, it is generally more effective to concentrate on positive emotions like happiness, joy, trust and love. Typical industries that use emotions in their advertising copy are banks and insurance agencies who often center on optimistic emotions like happiness and joy in an attempt to reconcile commonly held stereotypes of these industries as corporate mega powers. The Good – emotional appeals combine with nearly every appeal very effectively, can be the key to building up brand loyalty amongst customer base The Bad – emotional appeals must match the target market and current PR history of the company, consumers are increasingly aware of advertising messages.In summary, the seven appeals of advertising are useful to understand when in the beginning stages of creating an advertisement whether it be online or offline, building your advertisement around a given combination of appeals acts as a good starting point. Some tried and tested combination’s of advertising appeals includes the combination of fear and rationality (typically used in anti-smoking advertising), and the use of music and emotion generally are a good basis for any advertisement. In the end the appeals should be taken into consideration with other factors, namely your organizational marketing objectives, media strategy, target market make-up and brand strategy. If for example your organization is a local newspaper that caters to a demographic of 40 and above, and its looking to improve its brand loyalty by expressing its concern and care for the local community, a emotional or rational appeal would be most appropriate in helping you reach your marketing objective of brand loyalty with your target market.
It might not be an obvious choice for advertising, airplane advertising. We think of radio spots, newspaper advertisements, and – if our budget is large – billboards. We don’t often think of the plane advertising, but we should.Airplane advertising has many advantages over more traditional advertising that makes it an ideal, if not obvious choice, for use of the advertising dollar. Let’s look at a few.First, aerial advertising is relatively inexpensive compared to other forms of advertising. You can’t look just at the dollar spent, but the audience reached. That is, when you place a newspaper ad, you consider circulation. Well, you say, that newspaper has a circulation of 100,000, so that many people will see my advertisement.Not so fast.Unlike airplane advertising, not everyone who reads the paper will see your ad. That is, if the advertisement is placed in the local section of the paper, your advertisement will only be seen by those people who read that section (some might only read the front section and the sports page, while others might only read the classifieds).Once people are reading “your” section, there’s no guarantee they will read the ad you want them to read. Many people don’t read the advertisements at all.How is plane advertising different? It’s different in many ways. For example, you don’t ask potential customers to see your advertisement, you make sure they do. You don’t wonder if they read the airplane message; you know they do. You don’t even have to wonder if they remember the advertisement – studies show they do, when it’s sent to them via banner towing.Airplane messages are the ideal form of advertising because advertisers don’t have to wonder if their ad was seen, they don’t have to worry that it wasn’t read and they certainly don’t have to wonder if it is remembered.Aerial advertising has a nearly 100% “seen” rate, in that the majority of people will look to the sky when they are greeted with some plane advertising in the air. The majority of the people who see and read the advertisements will also remember them, so advertisers can be confident that their ads aren’t just seen, they are remembered.Also unique is that advertisers don’t have to worry they are invading on their potential customer’s spaces. That is, there are no advertisements to place on car windows (which just get thrown away), no living rooms to invade through the television and no billboard to distract driving. While lying on the beach or enjoying a music festival, the potential customer only has to look to the sky to get the message.Best of all, they remember the ad because it’s novel and creative. They don’t feel as if their lives have been invaded. Certainly, if they want to ignore the banner advertising, they can roll over on the beach, or not look up from the music festival activities, but since most people report a positive response to banner advertising, it’s safe to assume the majority of people won’t do that.Why do banner advertising? Because it works. Your aerial advertising has a greater chance of reaching the intended audience more than any other form of advertising.